The Fall of Constantinople

1453 The Fall of Constantinople.jpgConstantinople was built-in the year 330 by Constantine. It was captured in both the years 1204 and 1261. It lost much of its populations from the black death in the years 1346-1349.

A problem arose when Constantine the Eleventh realized that Mehmed the Second (the Sultan of Ottoman) was preparing for war. He call on Europe for help but because of the papal schism they were still at odds. He gained 7,000 men and 2,000 of them were foreigners. Mehmed had 50,000-80,000 men this making the odds more in his favor (he also had many ships and cannons).

Constantine really tried to defend his city but it still fell. It is believed that the Ottomans still did suffer much from this battle. Mehmed looted the city for three days and then allowed the citizens to continue living their lives. They were now under the power of the Ottoman Empire though. This was the end of the remains of the Roman Empire. It also marks the end of the Middle Ages. Constantinople’s name was changed to Istanbul and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.

The fall of Constantinople led to many changes. Some of which would be the use of cannons would become more popular or the old religions of the time were pretty much gotten rid of. This event was yet another part of God’s perfect plan and he used it for the glory of Him. Sometimes terrible things like war are used for the best of reasons.

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The Hundred Years’ War

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In the year 1066 William the Conqueror who was also the Duke of Normandy invaded England and took it. William was still a vassal of the king in France and this caused a big problem. England and France became at odds and it was not going to end quickly.

In 1337 Edward the Third of England would not pay homage to Philip the Sixth of France. He even claimed to be the rightful king of France. Due to an ancient law code Philip became king instead.

A major place in the wars was Gascony. The problem with Gascony was that it was part of France but had been a duchy of England for a long time. In 1337 it was agreed that it should be part of France.

The wars are divided into three parts. They were the Edwardian Era (1337-1360), the Caroline War (1369-1389), and the Lancastrian Era (1415-1453).

The first battle began on June 22, 1340. It was known as the Battle of Sluys and it was won by Edward the Third of England. In 1346 he then captured the city of Caen and followed this with a victory at the battle of Crecy. Then he captured the city of Calais. The wars had a pause because of the black death but are continued with the next kings.

Edward the Black Prince led the battle in 1356 and won a victory in the Battle of Pointier. The king of France, John the Second, was captured and his son succeeded him. Then came the Treaty of Bretigny which lasted 1360-1369.

Richard the second of England was the son of the Black Prince. He did not really want to fight so a peace was made in the years 1389-1415. Then the English king Henry the Fifth started the wars up again.

The English and French met at the Battle of Agincourt. The battlegrounds were muddy and small. This led to the victory of the English because of their lightweight armors unlike the French who got stuck in the mud easily. Henry then became the Duke of Normandy. In 1420 he married the French princess Catherine. Treaty of Troyes ended this part of the war with a promise that Henry’s son would rule France.

Joan of Arc turned the war around and gave victories to the French. She had visions coming from saints telling her to help save France. She went to see the king at age 16 and was turned down three times first. She later got to see him and he allowed her to raise an army against the English. She laid siege on Saint Loup and won. She made the path clear for Charles the Seventh to be crowned king. Joan was later captured and tried for heresy. She was burned at the stake on May 30th, 1431. She was known as the “Maiden of Orleans”. The wars went on for many years after her death but she definitely affected the wars greatly.