Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo

Leonardo-and-Michelangelo-001

Leonardo was born in the town of Florence in the year 1452. He was a famous artist during the time of the renaissance. His first work that we know of is the drawing of Arno Valley.  He also became a master in the Guild of Saint Luke. His most famous painting is the well-known Mona Lisa. It is unknown who the woman in the painting is but we do know that he took a great deal of time and effort to make it perfect.

Leonardo was also known to be very smart. He also had many scientific and mathematic projects as well as his paintings.  He thought that both art and science were connected. He wrote all his ideas in about 13,000 pages. He died in the year 1519 in France and was remembered as an important man in the renaissance.

Michelangelo was another well-known artist during the time of the renaissance. He was born just outside of Tuscany, Italy in the year 1475. He was an apprentice of a man who owned the largest workshop in Florence. He is famous for the statue of David and the painting on the Sistine Chapel.

Before he died he designed St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome which he did not see finished. He died in the year 1564 and was remembered (just like Leonardo) for his influence during the renaissance.

Advertisements

The Fall of Constantinople

1453 The Fall of Constantinople.jpgConstantinople was built-in the year 330 by Constantine. It was captured in both the years 1204 and 1261. It lost much of its populations from the black death in the years 1346-1349.

A problem arose when Constantine the Eleventh realized that Mehmed the Second (the Sultan of Ottoman) was preparing for war. He call on Europe for help but because of the papal schism they were still at odds. He gained 7,000 men and 2,000 of them were foreigners. Mehmed had 50,000-80,000 men this making the odds more in his favor (he also had many ships and cannons).

Constantine really tried to defend his city but it still fell. It is believed that the Ottomans still did suffer much from this battle. Mehmed looted the city for three days and then allowed the citizens to continue living their lives. They were now under the power of the Ottoman Empire though. This was the end of the remains of the Roman Empire. It also marks the end of the Middle Ages. Constantinople’s name was changed to Istanbul and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.

The fall of Constantinople led to many changes. Some of which would be the use of cannons would become more popular or the old religions of the time were pretty much gotten rid of. This event was yet another part of God’s perfect plan and he used it for the glory of Him. Sometimes terrible things like war are used for the best of reasons.

Writing Styles of Jack London and Mark Twain

thQSCFGZUW

I recently read two very well written books. The first was A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court and the second was White Fang by Jack London. Both of these authors use similar styles when writing.

One thing that both of these authors do is write the story through the characters point of view. Through the whole story you get the story straight from the character.

On the other hand the way that you see it through their eyes is different. In A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court the main character is the one telling the story. He is telling the story of his past to you. Almost like a journal written for you. In White Fang the author tells you exactly what White Fang (this is the name of his character) feels. You are reading his story as if you were there with him. Through the book you are in the same time as White Fang. This is unlike Mark Twain’s book because you are looking into the past of his character.

Another thing the authors have in common is their books are very easy to follow. Nothing ever gets confusing and it can actually become very exciting. The books can be read by all ages and they will keep your attention well. Both authors are very similar so if you like one of them you are sure to like the other.  

The Black Death

black-death.jpg

The black death was an epidemic plague that spread in Europe in the year 1348. It was going around for a while but the recognized date was 1348. This great plague killed 30-60% of Europe’s populations. Due to the numerous amount of deaths working men became scares and this let to less food coming to harvest. Even more deaths came from the famine that was produced from the plague.

Symptoms of the plague were boils, fevers, aches, chills, and vomiting. The boils or spots would turn black and you would have just a few days left after this. Doctors did not have enough knowledge to know how to treat the disease. They tried dangerous things like bloodletting but all was in vain.

Some people believed the plague was judgement from God and they whipped themselves in public. This was their attempt to make it right with God. I believe that it could be very likely that it was God’s judgment. The people did not help themselves at all because they did not respond how God would want them to. God wants them to repent from their sins not try to take punishment into their own hands. It may have been painful and embarrassing to be whipped in public but it is not what God would require. Therefore they embarrassed themselves on their own accord and gained absolutely nothing from it.

You may not have known it but you most likely sang a poem about the plague as a child. The poem Ring Around The Rosy is a poem about the black death. Rosy symbolizes the red spots that would appear when you infected by the plague. Posies symbolize the bundles of flowers that people would carry around to try to help with the smell from the bodies of the dead. Ashes symbolize the bodies that had to be burned to try to control the smell. What may have been a sweet poem to recite is actually telling a story about a terrible plague.

The plague was mostly gone by 1350 but did show up a few times in the 19th century. It took Europe approximately 150 years to regain its numbers. The plague was a major dent in Europe’s history.

The Hundred Years’ War

5e46cf4b-8398-47ef-80c5-de2e21b11aa9.jpg

In the year 1066 William the Conqueror who was also the Duke of Normandy invaded England and took it. William was still a vassal of the king in France and this caused a big problem. England and France became at odds and it was not going to end quickly.

In 1337 Edward the Third of England would not pay homage to Philip the Sixth of France. He even claimed to be the rightful king of France. Due to an ancient law code Philip became king instead.

A major place in the wars was Gascony. The problem with Gascony was that it was part of France but had been a duchy of England for a long time. In 1337 it was agreed that it should be part of France.

The wars are divided into three parts. They were the Edwardian Era (1337-1360), the Caroline War (1369-1389), and the Lancastrian Era (1415-1453).

The first battle began on June 22, 1340. It was known as the Battle of Sluys and it was won by Edward the Third of England. In 1346 he then captured the city of Caen and followed this with a victory at the battle of Crecy. Then he captured the city of Calais. The wars had a pause because of the black death but are continued with the next kings.

Edward the Black Prince led the battle in 1356 and won a victory in the Battle of Pointier. The king of France, John the Second, was captured and his son succeeded him. Then came the Treaty of Bretigny which lasted 1360-1369.

Richard the second of England was the son of the Black Prince. He did not really want to fight so a peace was made in the years 1389-1415. Then the English king Henry the Fifth started the wars up again.

The English and French met at the Battle of Agincourt. The battlegrounds were muddy and small. This led to the victory of the English because of their lightweight armors unlike the French who got stuck in the mud easily. Henry then became the Duke of Normandy. In 1420 he married the French princess Catherine. Treaty of Troyes ended this part of the war with a promise that Henry’s son would rule France.

Joan of Arc turned the war around and gave victories to the French. She had visions coming from saints telling her to help save France. She went to see the king at age 16 and was turned down three times first. She later got to see him and he allowed her to raise an army against the English. She laid siege on Saint Loup and won. She made the path clear for Charles the Seventh to be crowned king. Joan was later captured and tried for heresy. She was burned at the stake on May 30th, 1431. She was known as the “Maiden of Orleans”. The wars went on for many years after her death but she definitely affected the wars greatly.

 

 

 

 

 

John Wycliffe

thJohn Wycliffe was the first to promote the Reformation. He is known as “The Morning Star of the Reformation”. He was born in about 1320 near Yorkshire, England. In 1374 he went to Lutterworth and lived there for the rest of his life.

John was against indulgences and believed the scriptures should govern the church not the Pope. The Pope greatly disliked him for his preaching. He was widely popular in England so the Pope was wasn’t as harsh as he could have been. Pope Gregory issued five bulls (official documents) against John. He did not however excommunicate him.

At the time it was believed that God’s Word should not be for everyday use to the people. John believed otherwise and wanted everyone to have access to one. He began to translate the Bible for people to read. He died before it was completed but his friend was credited for finishing it.

In the year 1384, John Wycliffe, suffered from a stoke and died. His followers were known as the Lollards and continued his teachings.

He was so hated by the Pope that his works were all burned and his bones dug up and also burned. All of this was an attempt to rid of what John had started. John’s teachings instead lived on and despite the struggles of the Pope they continued to flourish.

My Take on The Theme of Treasure Island

th.jpg

I recently read the book Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson. This was definitely my favorite book in my list so far. The book was very entertaining and full of different twists and turns. The book set the stage for the pirate we think of today. When I read the book I came up with two different themes.

First, don’t be too quick to judge a person. The main character Jim Hawkins often would quickly change his opinion on Long John Silver. Also, the squire picked the entire crew for the ship based off his judgment. He was too quick to judge and ended up with a lot of problems.

Second, determination can pay off. Jim and his companions were determined to get the treasure. They went through hoops to get it and succeeded. Certainly in their situation most people would have quit at the worst moment in the book.

I do not know if either of these themes were intended by Robert Stevenson. I clearly could see them but everyone may have a different take.

I definitely would recommend this book to others who enjoy adventure or pirates. The book was hard to put down and the chapters are just the right size. Try reading it to a sibling. They would definitely enjoy the excitement of the story.