Charles Martel


Charles Martel’s father was the Mayor of the Palace in France. This position was really the position of king. The king in France was really just a figurehead  and the real king was the Mayor of the Palace. This means that Charles Martel’s father was the real king of France but did not hold that title.

When Charles’ father died in the year 714 A.D. his mother tried to take the position by putting him in prison. Charles was called to be the leader of the army when they were being attacked.  This first battle was the only battle that Charles ever lost. He was outnumbered and decided to flee the field. He then defeated his enemy in the Battle of Amblive later.

Charles won his battles using a where, when, and how tactic. This means he attacked them where they least expected,  when they least expected, and how they least expected. He was very successful using these tactics.

Charles is well-known for his battle with the Muslims. This is the Battle of Tours when the Muslims attacked France. Charles made a surprise attack in 732. The battle went on for 7 days and the Franks repelled their attack. Charles was given his name of Charles Martel or Charles the Hammer for his great win.


History of Islam

Muhammad was born in the year 570. He was born in Mecca a place very near to the Ka’ba Shine which is very important to the Muslim religion. Muhammad’s parents died when he was still a child and he went to live with his uncle. At the age of twenty-four he married a wealthy widow and became a prosperous merchant. At the age of forty in the year 610 A.D. he had his “revelation”.  In his vision he was told he was a profit of a new religion and needed to prophesy to the world.  He was shunned by his family and many tried to kill him for his message. He moved to Medina in 622 probably for safety and to spread his message. He was greatly accepted and later captured Mecca and converts them to the Muslim religion.

In the Muslim religion there are five pillars (requirements). First there is Shahadah,   which is a creed under oath that the person must give. Second there is the Salat, which is the daily prayers of the Muslim and they must say at least five daily. This is to help them keep focused on their god Allah. Thirdly there is Zakat, which is a sort of almsgiving. Fourthly there is the Fast of Ramadan, which is a month of fasting for the Muslim people and is meant to save them from their sin. And finally, there is Hajj which is the pilgrimage that each Muslim must make. It means that they must walk seven times around the Ka’ba Shine, seven trips between Mt. Safa and Mt. Arweh, and then two days of praying and worshipping in the desert. The goal of each Muslim is to be favorable to Allah and to get into heaven.

After Muhammad there were four leaders (known as Caliphs) that were important. Their names were Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali. Many of the Muslims disagreed on who was fit the best to rule and this caused a split into two sects. The Sunni and the Shia.

Although, I do not believe this religion it is still important to understand. Because it is the second largest religion in the world  and it also goes along with my studies of Europe.

Justinian The Great

Justinian was a very powerful ruler in the Eastern Roman Empire. He started out as a shepherd boy but at the age of sixteen he walked all the way to his uncle Justin’s home. His uncle was the commander of the emperor’s guards. His uncle took him into his home and gave him a good education.

Justinian’s uncle became emperor after the death of the previous emperor. Justinian then assisted him in is work. He became co-emperor before his uncle’s death and became sole emperor after his death in 527. He ruled for the next forty years.

Justinian was known as Justinian the Great for his accomplishments. First was that he expanded the Eastern Roman Empire into North Africa. And second was that in 532 A.D. there was a revolt against him that he was able to put down. Thirdly, Justinian wrote the Code of Justinian which was the base of imperial law in Byzantium.

Justinian died in the year 565 A.D. And was known as Justinian the Great a very powerful ruler in the Eastern Roman Empire.

Differential Steering With Car-Type Steering

This week I learned about differential steering an car-type steering. Here are some differences and likenesses between the two.

Both of the steering types are non-holonomic. This means that the base has to turn in order for the whole thing to turn. Differential steering is very agile. To go straight both motors will need to go the same speed and to turn one motor will have to go faster. If you want to go in a circle the motors will both go in the opposite direction.

Car-type you have the front two wheels turn and the back are still. It is a lot easier to move in a straight line compared to differential steering.

This is just a little bit of the things I learned in science this week.

In a New World

I will never understand how it happened but all I can remember is I was leaving home to go to a dance with my fiancé,  family, and friends.  After that I found myself laying in a field full of soft grass and flowers. I was scared and confused. My evening was going to be wonderful and full of memories and I had no idea how I got here. And, on top of that I had spent so much money and time in getting my dress and doing my hair for the ball.

My first thought was that the others had left me behind. I know they had all shared tea with me and maybe it was their plan to give me a sedative and leave me behind. But, of course I brushed that idea aside knowing that we had been close for years. And, I knew for a fact that they did not do that when I stood up and all of the beautiful light pink flowers began to glow and then flew into the air. This frightened me greatly and I had no idea what I should do or where I should go. My only concern was if in this new world flowers could fly then what could animals like wolves, bears, and snakes do?

As I was pondering what to do next one of the flowers flew up to me and spoke. I felt like I was going to faint! This was all too much for me to take in. I knew I was in some sort of fairy tale world like what children would read about but how and why was I here? This “fairy” told me that she had prepared a place for me to live and that she was so glad I was finally here. I asked what she meant by “finally” but she started to fly off. I didn’t know what else to do but to follow her.

She brought me to some sort of cottage in the woods where everything seemed to glow with bright shining colors. She told me to make myself at home and she would explain everything in the morning. I was far from tired so I decided to explore my new home (as this is where I new I would stay until I found my way back to where I came from). Inside there was several quaint rooms including a bedroom, kitchen, and a dining room. Of course I later found out that unfortunately wherever this place was they had not invented the bathroom yet and I only had an outhouse.  The home would serve me nicely for the night because tomorrow I was going to get back home.

In the morning the “fairy” showed up bright and early. We sat in the bedroom and I was prepared to hear exactly how I got here. Of course, the first thing she said was she didn’t know how I got here but she was glad I was because the fairies had a prophecy that said thier new ruler would arrive suddenly in a field when they were all gathered there. I didn’t know what to say. I was stunned and sure that I wasn’t this “ruler”. I told  her to take me back and she said she couldn’t nor would she want to.

Apparently, the fairies last ruler died years ago and they had wanted another but none were worthy. So I was chosen by their last ruler on her death-bed and some how I was taken here.

The fairy was so kind to me and seemed so desperate. I told her I would be their “ruler” but only until I found a way home.

To this day I am still in this “fairy tale” land. I rule the fairies and I probably always will. They all adore me and I do not have to do anything for them. I tried for years to find a way home. I will always miss my dear David and my family. But, I will never give up trying to get back home.

Fifteen years later as the ruler I declared that all the fairies should find a way for me to travel in-between worlds. And only just yesterday did my dear fairy friend say she may have found a way.  I will finally after all these years go home.